Monday, August 11, 2014

Lovecraft's Secret Source for the Cthulhu Mythos

H.P. Lovecraft claimed in a letter to Conan author Robert E. Howard that the Cthulhu Mythos was his own creation. Even diehard Lovecraft fans don't buy that anymore. Lovecraft was a voracious reader (meaning he was poor and not exactly prolific) and was a hardcore fanboy before fanboys were a thing. He famously wore his influences on his sleeve (Dunsany, Poe, etc), but maybe there were some he kept a bit closer to his vest.

"The Call of Cthulhu  is one of my favorite Lovecraft stories ("The Festival" and "Colour Out of Space" probably round out my top three) and is probably one of the richest for symbol mining. It's rife with stock pulp riffs but also displays a familiarity with esoteric literature that belies his self-image as a hard-bitten materialist.

The Wikipedia entry for the story lists some of the influences Lovecraft scholars have cited in the story, including Tennyson's The Kraken, de Maupassant's The Horla, Dunsany's  The Gods of Pegana and William Scott-Elliot's The Story of Atlantis and The Lost Lemuria. 

One story they overlook- and a story I am cosmically certain he read- is Jack London's The Red One, which deals with (among other things) a crew of sailors who discover a remote Pacific Island tribe who worship an alien probe that landed on Earth. The florid language of the "starry gulfs" and "pitiless rule of natural selection" should ring a familiar note with any serious Lovecraft fan.
Even as he lay here, under the breadfruit tree, an intelligence that stared across the starry gulfs, so must all the universe be exposed to the ceaseless scrutiny of innumerable eyes, like his, though grantedly different, with behind them, by the same token, intelligences that questioned and sought the meaning and the construction of the whole.  So reasoning, he felt his soul go forth in kinship with that august company, that multitude whose gaze was forever upon the arras of infinity. 
Who were they, what were they, those far distant and superior ones who had bridged the sky with their gigantic, red-iridescent, heaven-singing message?  Surely, and long since, had they, too, trod the path on which man had so recently, by the calendar of the cosmos, set his feet.  And to be able to send a message across the pit of space, surely they had reached those heights to which man, in tears and travail and bloody sweat, in darkness and confusion of many counsels, was so slowly struggling.
And what were they on their heights?  Had they won Brotherhood?  Or had they learned that the law of love imposed the penalty of weakness and decay?  Was strife, life?  Was the rule of all the universe the pitiless rule of natural selection?   
Of one thing he was certain: No drop of red dew shaken from the lion-mane of some sun in torment, was the sounding sphere.  It was of design, not chance, and it contained the speech and wisdom of the stars. 
What engines and elements and mastered forces, what lore and mysteries and destiny-controls, might be there!   
While I'm certain Lovecraft read The Red One, I'm also certain he read a corpus of literature altogether more esoteric, and he subtly signals to his readers this fact throughout the text. Here's a telling example from "Cthulhu":
Theosophists have guessed at the awesome grandeur of the cosmic cycle wherein our world and human race form transient incidents. They have hinted at strange survivals in terms which would freeze the blood if not masked by a bland optimism. 
Ah, yes- Theosophy.

While most Lovecraft fans seem to think Helena Blavatsky was the only Theosophist who ever picked up a pen, there's another Theosophist who in her own way was just as influential, and was certainly more influential on the UFO scene and its relations than the old Madam.  (Note that Scott-Elliot, cited on Wikipedia, was also a Theosophist)

Alice Bailey was a Theosophist who became a scare figure in some conspiracy literature thanks to her knitting circle New Age foundation known as the Lucis Trust, formerly known as the Lucifer Publishing Company (Lucifer was the name of the official Theosophist newspaper for many years).

Bailey claimed to telepathically channel an "Ascended Master" known as 'The Tibetan' aka Djwal Khul, who allegedly dictated a virtual library of nearly-impenetrable Theosophist literature. Bailey was a Blavatsky loyalist and pretender to the throne who was kicked out of the Society when Annie Besant took control. Undaunted, she started her own operation, including a publishing arm and branch offices in Europe and North America.

The Lucis Trust's star rose as the Theosophists' star began to fall and although Bailey and the Trust are relatively obscure now they had a huge influence in their time. Many, including the esteemed religious scholar J. Gordon Melton, have credited her as the founder of the New Age movement. As many as one million people had some involvement with her teachings, according to one source on modern religions.

Bailey had some influence on the United Nations as well. Which makes this story all the weirder...


Beginning in 1922's Initiation, Human and Solar,  Bailey- I'm sorry, Djwal Khul- revealed a dense and elaborate cosmology of angelic beings that came to Earth from the Sirius star system (via astral projection), took human form, and through means not entirely made explicit began to evolve primitive apemen into modern homo sapiens.

Mind you, this is 50 years before Zecharia Sitchin or anyone like that. And way, way before Ancient Aliens. 

The Tibetan's telepathic transmissions ran the gamut; Lemuria, Atlantis, Shamballa, Masonic lodges on Sirius and the Pleiades, the whole Theosophical kit and kaboodle. As in the Cthulhu mythos many of these beings went into a kind of hibernation, keeping in contact with an appointed priesthood through telepathy and awaiting the dawning of the New Age.

Though Bailey was a Blavatsky apostle by confession, her own books reveal fascinating revisions to Theosophical mythology, revisions that would account for many of the innovations in the Cthulhu Mythos that had been previously credited to Lovecraft alone.

Besides Lucifer's house magazine The Beacon, Bailey would publish two more books predating the debut of "The Call of Cthulhu", Letters on Occult Meditation and A Treatise on Cosmic Fire.

All three of these books contain cosmological elements that would directly predate Lovecraft-- given the fact that he namechecks Theosophy seven times in "Cthulhu",  I would suggest that it's highly probable Lovecraft had access to this literature and it's possible he was keeping it secret from his circle of correspondents (or at least some of them), most likely to safeguard a source for material. As we'll see, his own writings reveal a powerful motive for this. (Note: see postscript)

It's even possible that the Wilcox character in "Cthulhu" was based on an acquaintance of Lovecraft's ("he called himself 'psychically hypersensitive'") who was interested in Theosophy, and was his source for the material that Lovecraft was plundering for his new mythos.

Here's a bullet-point summary of the arguments I'll be making here:
• Alice Bailey was a well-known Theosophist who expanded on Madam Blavatsky's work 
• Beginning in 1922, Bailey began preaching a prototype of what is now known as Ancient Astronaut Theory 
• Bailey's work contains several unique innovations on Blavatsky's exegesis  
• Careful study of Lovecraft's "Call of Cthulhu  shows the distinct influence of Bailey's work on the so-called Chthulu Mythos 
• This influence is shown in the names, origins, physical natures, relationship to humanity, past history and other unique details 
• Specific clues to Bailey's influence can be found in "Cthulhu" as well as "Shadow Out of Time"
• Bailey's original appeal for Lovecraft may have been that she had written a sequel to the Book of Dzyan, a phatasmagorical Theosophical text that HPL found inspiration in 

With that, let's begin with Bailey's origin story...

Bailey and Lovecraft's Alien Hierarchies

From Initiation, here is Bailey's elevator pitch for her millions-years old alien gods:

Its Appearance on the Planet 
Suffice it for our purpose to say that in the middle of the Lemurian epoch, approximately eighteen million years ago, occurred a great event which signified, among other things, the following developments: - The Planetary Logos of our earth scheme, one of the Seven Spirits before the throne, took physical incarnation, and, under the form of Sanat Kumara, the Ancient of Days, and the Lord of the World, came down to this dense physical planet and has remained with us ever since... 
With the Ancient of Days came a group of other highly evolved Entities, who represent his own individual karmic group and those Beings who are the outcome of the triple nature of the Planetary Logos. 
Those who are now the inner group around the Lord of the World have been primarily recruited from the ranks of those who were initiates on the moon chain (the cycle of evolution preceding ours) or who have come in on certain streams of solar energy, astrologically determined, from other planetary schemes….

Fundamentalists made hay with "Sanat," claiming it was an anagram for Satan, but either way he and his entourage made their way to Earth and took physical form. From "Call of Cthulhu , essentially the same story, less portentously phrased:
They had, indeed, come themselves from the stars, and brought Their images with Them. 
These Great Old Ones, Castro continued, were not composed altogether of flesh and blood. They had shape - for did not this star-fashioned image prove it? - but that shape was not made of matter. When the stars were right, They could plunge from world to world through the sky; but when the stars were wrong, They could not live. But although They no longer lived, They would never really die. 

To recap, both impossibly ancient godlike aliens who travel via astral projection. Lovecraft makes a point- exactly as we see in Initiation- that astrology determines the success of their travels. Remember now that Lovecraft claimed not to believe in any of that claptrap. Why would he include that detail? Because he was following someone else's script. It gets better, or worse, depending on your point of view here.


Here's where we get into the nomenclature, the Old Ones and the Deep Ones and the This Ones and the That Ones. From "Chthulu":
My knowledge of the thing began in the winter of 1926-27 with the death of my great-uncle, George Gammell Angell, Professor Emeritus of Semitic Languages in Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Professor Angell was widely known as an authority on ancient inscriptions, and had frequently been resorted to by the heads of prominent museums; so that his passing at the age of ninety-two may be recalled by many.
The surname "Angell" (named after Lovecraft's old Providence address) provides our first clue, because as opposed to Blavatsky's Dzyan verses (cited most often by Lovecraft scholars as his primary Theosophist source), Bailey repeatedly uses the term "Angel" interchangeably with her descriptions of the ascended antediluvian masters.

OK, big deal, right? Perhaps another important clue; Lovecraft undoubtedly knew that in the ancient traditions, angels- or Cherubim- were chimeras, made of many different parts of animals (Just like Cthulhu!). Even in the more modern tradition angels are chimeras of man and bird.

Further,  I'm not certain if Lovecraft was aware of this but the surname Gammell means "Old One", but given his track record there's a good chance he did. It seems too much of a coincidence here.

Which brings us to our first exhibit- the naming of these extraterrestrial beings.

Lovecraft uses the "Great Old Ones", Bailey used "Great Ones" and the like throughout Initiation. Lovecraft refers to the Elder Things, Initiation refers to the Ancient One. Two races of impossibly ancient godlike extraterrestrials who travel to Earth via astral projection, two nearly identical names.

Here are some examples from Initiation, Human and Solar:
"He is the greatest of all the Avatars, or Coming Ones
"To cooperate with the plan of the Great Ones as he sees it and as best he may."  
"It is not easy to love as do the Great Ones, with a pure love which requires nothing back" 
"They are not very many in number, for the majority of the Great Ones pass on steadily and increasingly to other and higher work, as their places can be taken and their functions carried on by members of our earth evolution, both deva and human." 
"Those who do the work of wielding forces, or electrical magnetism for the use of the Great Ones on all the planes, pass to this Path." 
"Great waves of ideas and surging currents of public opinion on astral levels, as well as on the higher levels where the Great Ones work, are manipulated by them." 
"These mighty Four, Action and Love, in wise cooperation work with their Brothers of a lesser grade, the three Great Lords we know." 
"He with the Name we mention not, save in utter adoration; the Youth of Endless Summers, the Light of Life itself, the Wondrous One, the Ancient One, Lord of Venusian Love, the great Kumara with the Flaming Sword, the Peace of all the Earth."
There's more in her other books, but you get the idea. And this quote from Initiation feels especially Lovecraftian:
"To the greatest Lord of all, before whom e'en that Ancient One bends in obeisance low; before whose throne of effulgent light Angels of highest rank, Masters and Lords of uttermost compassion, prostrate themselves and humbly bend, waiting the Word to rise."
Identical beings, identical names. But what about the exact nature of these beings? First Lovecraft:
These Great Old Ones, Castro continued, were not composed altogether of flesh and blood. They had shape - for did not this star-fashioned image prove it? - but that shape was not made of matter. 
(The Ancient of Days) came down to this dense physical planet and has remained with us ever since. Owing to the extreme purity of his nature…he was unable to take a dense physical body such as ours, and has to function in his etheric body. He is the greatest of all the Avatars, or Coming Ones.
Identical origins, identical names, identical natures. What do did these beings do here on Earth, respectively? Lovecraft, you're up:
It was then that he began that rambling tale which suddenly played upon a sleeping memory and won the fevered interest of my uncle. There had been a slight earthquake tremor the night before, the most considerable felt in New England for some years; and Wilcox's imagination had been keenly affected. Upon retiring, he had had an unprecedented dream of great Cyclopean cities of Titan blocks and sky-flung monoliths, all dripping with green ooze and sinister with latent horror. 
Then, whispered Castro, those first men formed the cult around tall idols which the Great Ones shewed them; idols brought in dim eras from dark stars.

From another Theosophical text, The Book of Dzyan (published 1888), concerning the descendants original Seven that Bailey also writes of in Initiation.
1. . . . Listen, ye sons of the earth, to your instructors -- the sons of the fire. learn, there is neither first nor last, for all is one: number issued from no number.
2. Learn what we who descend from the primordial seven, we who are born from the primordial flame, have learnt from our fathers. . . .
43. They built huge cities, of rare earths and metals they built, and out of the fires vomited, out of the white stone of the mountains and of the black stone, they cut their own images in their size and likeness, and worshipped them.
OK, gods descending from the stars, building huge stone cities, building idols of themselves and making them objects of worship.

All published FORTY years before "The Call of Cthulhu."

But what happened to this giant stone city of the space gods? Howard?
The great stone city R'lyeh, with its monoliths and sepulchres, had sunk beneath the waves; and the deep waters, full of the one primal mystery through which not even thought can pass, had cut off the spectral intercourse.  
44. They built great images nine yatis high, the size of their bodies. inner fires had destroyed the land of their fathers. The water threatened the fourth. 
45. The first great waters came. They swallowed the seven great islands.
The Dzyan texts are key to this mystery. We'll return to them shortly.


Here's a giveaway; a detail that Lovecraft threw in, tipping his hat to his source material by adding in a scene meant as an editorial comment on the potential moral hazards that this Theosophic hoodoo posed to polite society, one I'm sure most readers missed.

Let's get some background first...

In Initiation, Human and Solar makes it clear that the new religion is a revival of the ancient Mystery cults:
The participants in the mysteries are generally known, and no secret has been made of the general personnel and procedure. It is only sought here to impart a greater sense of reality to the data already given by a fuller exposition and a more pointed reference to the parts played by such during the ceremony.
Picking up on the Mystery cult angle, Lovecraft shows just well-read he is when he takes us to the swamps of Louisiana. I'll tell you why shortly.
Animal fury and orgiastic license here whipped themselves to daemoniac heights by howls and squawking ecstacies that tore and reverberated through those nighted woods like pestilential tempests from the gulfs of hell.  
From a wide circle of ten scaffolds set up at regular intervals with the flame-girt monolith as a centre hung, head downward, the oddly marred bodies of the helpless squatters who had disappeared. It was inside this circle that the ring of worshippers jumped and roared, the general direction of the mass motion being from left to right in endless Bacchanal between the ring of bodies and the ring of fire. 
Only two of the prisoners were found sane enough to be hanged, and the rest were committed to various institutions. All denied a part in the ritual murders, and averred that the killing had been done by Black Winged Ones which had come to them from their immemorial meeting-place in the haunted wood.  

Just as he does when he namechecks the Theosophists, Lovecraft reveals his sources by comparing this ritual to the ancient "Bacchanals."
Ever since the rites involved the admission of men among the women, and with the added liberation of darkness, absolutely every crime and vice was performed there. The men had more sex with each other than with the women. Anyone who was less prepared for disgrace and slow to commit crimes was offered up as a sacrifice. To consider nothing wrong was the principal tenet of their religio. 
Men, as if insane, prophesied with wild convulsions of their bodies, married women in the dress of the Bacchants with streaming hair ran down to the Tiber carrying burning torches, which they dipped into the water and brought out still alight . People were said to have been carried off by gods; they had been strapped to a machine and snatched from sight to hidden caves. Those seized were people who had refused to join in conspiracy or participate in crimes or engage in sex.   
Livy, History of Rome 39.8-13 (abridged)

Note the precisely parallel citations of A., furious rites, B., human sacrifice, C., the machines of death and D., people killed by gods who emerge from their ancient hiding places. 

Lovecraft knew his Livy.

This is just an excerpt- you can find all sorts of descriptions of Bacchanals where women rip animals apart with their bare hands and eat them raw, all sorts of yelling and screaming and self-mutilation; these rituals got pretty hairy (though not all Mysteries were as crazy as the Bacchic, certainly).

For a buttoned-up conservative like Lovecraft to see a crazy woman like Alice Bailey desiring to resurrect the ancient Mysteries? Well, you can imagine the horror.

This is a major clue. You can imagine your stock voodoo cult in a horror story, but for Lovecraft  to cite an ancient Mystery cult so specifically- and within the context of all the other parallels- suggests to us he was reading Bailey.


Lovecraft speaks of an ancient calamity in which the city of the Old Ones sunk beneath the waves. But this was just a temporary inconvenience- the Old Ones are just biding their time until they rise again. The "spectral intercourse" between god and man goes on.
In the elder time chosen men had talked with the entombed Old Ones in dreams, but then something happened. The great stone city R'lyeh, with its monoliths and sepulchres, had sunk beneath the waves; and the deep waters, full of the one primal mystery through which not even thought can pass, had cut off the spectral intercourse. But memory never died, and the high-priests said that the city would rise again when the stars were right. 
Bailey speaks of the same ancient deluge, only in Atlantis, and the same continuing relationship between the gods and humanity, referring to the First World War which had ended only five years earlier. We will soon see that Bailey's "forces of light" and "forces of darkness"also battled in space, or in "the stars."
The Hierarchy thus took advantage of the discriminative faculty of mind, which is the distinctive quality of humanity, to enable him, through the balancing of the pairs of opposites, to reach his goal, and to find his way back to the source from whence he came. 
This decision led to that great struggle which distinguished the Atlantean civilization, and which culminated in the destruction called the flood, referred to in all the Scriptures of the world. The forces of light, and the forces of darkness, were arrayed against each other, and this for the helping of humanity. The struggle still persists, and the World War through which we have just passed was a recrudescence of it.
Lovecraft too has Cthulhu and his host of chimeras waiting in the watery wastes of R'lyeh after the ancient deluge, looking to the stars for a signal.
Those Old Ones were gone now, inside the earth and under the sea; but their dead bodies had told their secrets in dreams to the first men, who formed a cult which had never died. This was that cult, and the prisoners said it had always existed and always would exist, hidden in distant wastes and dark places all over the world until the time when the great priest Cthulhu, from his dark house in the mighty city of R'lyeh under the waters, should rise and bring the earth again beneath his sway. Some day he would call, when the stars were ready, and the secret cult would always be waiting to liberate him.
Both Lovecraft and Bailey are following in previous Theosophical footsteps, but we are seeing fresh impetus from texts that were now contemporary with Lovecraft. Which brings us to a new Book of Dzyan...


Bailey, a Blavatskyian to the core, published a new series of "Stanzas of Dzyan" in A Treatise on Cosmic Fire in 1925.  These would be just as florid and Lovecraft-ready as the first batch. Perhaps more so, as we shall see.

Now read this excerpt from Bailey's Dzyan and compare to Lovecraft's quote from "Call":
The waters arose. All sank and was submerged. The sacred remnant, in the place appointed, emerged at later date from out the zone of safety. 
The waters dissipated. The solid ground emerged in certain destined places....When the lesser Fifth had midway passed and all the lesser four were peopling the land, the Lords of Dark Intent arose...They constructed other forms. They called for cosmic fire. The seven deep pits of hell belched forth the animating shades.  
The period of destruction extended far on either hand. The work was sadly marred. The Chohans of the highest plane gazed in silence on the work. The Asuras and the Chaitans, the Sons of Cosmic Evil, and the Rishis of the darkest constellations,  gathered their lesser hosts, the darkest spawn of hell. They darkened all the space. The early Third produced the monsters, great beasts and evil forms. They prowled upon the surface of the sphere. 
The watery Fourth produced within the watery sphere, reptiles and spawn of evil fame, the product of their karma. The waters came and swept away the progenitors of the fluidic spawn.
Stunning. There's your Mythos right there, evil beasts in the ocean in communion with evil spirits in outer space. Note the florid prose and emphasis on astrology.

Bailey is obviously riffing on Blavatsky here but doing so in a more sci-fi adjacent manner, offering an exegesis ready made for pulp exploitation. And remember again this is all being credited to a "spirit being" named Khul.

With this, we have the exact allure of Bailey's work for Lovecraft; he was besotted with the Dzyan verses, and to get a whole new source, ripe for pulp exploitation, must have been a godsend. As he wrote in 1933:  "I'm quite on edge about that Dzyan-Shamballah stuff. The cosmic scope of it --- Lords of Venus, and all that --- sounds so especially and emphatically in my line!" (Selected Letters, vol. IV, p. 153).

There's another crucial clue: it would be Bailey's work- and not Blavatsky's- where Shamballah would be fully explored. Initation, Human and Solar is rife with references to the mythical city and obviously fresher in the public's mind. Blavatsky's work was 50 years old at this point and includes only two passing references to Shamballah.

As in Secret Doctrine, Bailey's Treatise on Cosmic Fire would also contain these new, sci-fi Stanzas of Dzyan as well as references to the "Lord of Venus" and Shamballah, where like the Great Old Ones, Bailey's "Great Ones" dwell in etheric bodies. All in a more recent and easier-to-digest package.

Alien Overlords? Lucifer? What could be the problem?

Lovecraft keeps hitting the same notes as Bailey. Here we have an old pulp standby but old pulp standbys didn't appear out of the ether, they were lifted from Theosophy and other occult traditions. "Cthulhu":
What the police did extract, came mainly from the immensely aged mestizo named Castro, who claimed to have sailed to strange ports and talked with undying leaders of the cult in the mountains of China.
Bailey too has the priests of her space gods in China as well, the Gobi desert to be precise, operating in etheric (or undying) form:
This Hierarchy of Brothers of Light still exists, and the work goes steadily on. They are all in physical existence, either in dense physical bodies, such as many of the Masters employ, or in etheric bodies, such as the more exalted helpers and the Lord of the World occupy. 
The central home of this Hierarchy is at Shamballa, a center in the Gobi desert, called in the ancient books the "White Island." It exists in etheric matter, and when the race of men on earth have developed etheric vision its location will be recognized and its reality admitted.
Amazing. Lovecraft must have been confident his audience- young, male, nerdy- would never go near Theosophist literature, which was written for a largely older, mostly female audience. How else can you explain such brazen appropriation?

But Bailey goes Lovecraft one better- the ancient space gods didn't just come here and do their funky mojo- they came here to make "animal man" a fit receptacle for their consciousness, thereby giving us a pretty clear - or as clear as we're going to get in a Theosophical text- example of Intervention Theory. 

So they didn't come here just to build giant stone cities and make themselves gods, they came here to speed up human evolution (see postscript):
The decision of the Planetary Logos to take a physical vehicle produced an extraordinary stimulation in the evolutionary process, and by his incarnation, and the methods of force distribution he employed, he brought about in a brief cycle of time what would otherwise have been inconceivably slow. The germ of mind in animal man was stimulated. 
The fourfold lower man, was coordinated and stimulated, and became a fit receptacle for the coming in of the self- conscious entities, those spiritual triads (the reflection of spiritual will, intuition, or wisdom, and higher mind) who had for long ages been waiting for just such a fitting. The fourth, or human kingdom, came thus into being, and the self-conscious, or rational unit, man, began his career. 
(Note: Bailey is expanding here on Scott-Elliot by adding an evolutionary sheen to the Theosophical Walk-In hoodoo. Curiously, Lovecraft didn't seem to cotton to this, perhaps betraying his own Darwinist impulses).

Lovecraft writes of his Old Ones in their watery tombs, dead but not dead, waiting for for the time when they could burst forth from their prisons.
They could not live. But although They no longer lived, They would never really die. They all lay in stone houses in Their great city of R'lyeh, preserved by the spells of mighty Cthulhu for a glorious surrection when the stars and the earth might once more be ready for Them. But at that time some force from outside must serve to liberate Their bodies. The spells that preserved them intact likewise prevented Them from making an initial move, and They could only lie awake in the dark and think whilst uncounted millions of years rolled by. 
 This too reads like an excerpt from the Book of Dzyan. Here is the same lament, dead but not dead, in a gloomy ocean, waiting for an inevitable resurrection:
Nor Aught nor Nought existed; yon bright sky
. Was not, nor heaven's broad roof outstretched above.
 What covered all? what sheltered? what concealed?
 Was it the water's fathomless abyss
 There was not death -- yet there was nought immortal,
 There was no confine betwixt day and night;
 The only One breathed breathless by itself,
  Other than It there nothing since has been.
Darkness there was, and all at first was veiled
. In gloom profound -- an ocean without light --
The germ that still lay covered in the husk 

Burst forth, one nature, from the fervent heat. 
Thou wert. And when the subterranean flame
 Shall burst its prison and devour the frame. Thou shalt be still as Thou wert before
 And knew no change, when time shall be no more.
Oh! endless thought, divine ETERNITY."
And as with so much of this material, note how closely Lovecraft aped the portentous syntax of the Dzyan material, whether Blavatsky's or Bailey's. It's uncanny.


Finally, Lovecraft has his Great Old Ones telepathically speaking to the living from their watery tombs, to the "sensitive," through their dreams.
They knew all that was occurring in the universe, for Their mode of speech was transmitted thought. Even now They talked in Their tombs. When, after infinities of chaos, the first men came, the Great Old Ones spoke to the sensitive among them by moulding their dreams; for only thus could Their language reach the fleshly minds of mammals.

Here is where I finally begin to conclude that "The Call of Cthulhu  began life as a Theosophist, in particular an Alice Bailey,  parody.

Bailey claimed that not only was she in contact with a Secret Chief, she claimed she was in telepathic contact with one. The possibilities must have been too rich for Lovecraft to resist. Not only is she in telepathic contact with one of these characters- named Khul, remember- but she claims he's the avatar of a multimillion-year-old alien god who astral projected from a Masonic lodge in the Sirius star system.

I mean, the stories write themselves, don't they?

And so one of the central features is that Cthulhu and his Great Old Ones- as opposed to Khul and his Great Ones- also communicate telepathically with their future cultists, who just like Bailey claimed for the Theosophists, are based on the ancient Mystery cults. 

After all, there is a huge precedent for a major pop culture mythos (immensely more popular in its heyday than Lovecraft) being drawn from Theosophical speculation- Edgar Rice Burrough's John Carter of Mars series.

Lovecraft scholar Robert M. Price cited Ascended Master/Secret Chief Khoot Humi (aka "Kuthumi" aka Koothoomi) as a source for Chthulu's name, but like most academics he tends towards the misconception that media-appointed figureheads represent the totality of heretical movements (Von Daniken equals all Ancient Astronaut Theorists, Blavatsky equals all Theosophists, Alex Jones equals all Truthers) and so his work on the Lovecraft-Theosophy connection completely overlooked contemporary Theosophists to HPL such as Bailey.

The final giveaway that Lovecraft was reading Bailey is Djwal Khul- he provides the "hul" in Cthulhu.

Kuthumi and Djwal Khul--
Kuth- Khul--
Cth --hul-U--

So now we can shovel dirt on the idea that "Lovecraft created Ancient Astronaut Theory." The true fact of the matter is that Lovecraft ripped off Ancient Astronaut Theory from Alice Bailey, straight up, no chaser.

Of course, this only makes the Mythos all the weirder and more resonant, taking it out of the dry, dead world of neckbeardery and Academia and plugging it into the world of the Occult and parapolitics, where it belongs. 

This proves yet again that our most resonant myths come only from the world of the irrational and the truly weird, and that without movements like Theosophy and the Golden Dawn there'd be no science fiction or horror or superhero fiction.

What is most important to remember is that the devils here are in the details. The influence of Theosophy on pulp fiction is not a news flash. I wrote about it in Our Gods Wear Spandex. Lovecraft's interest in the proto-ancient astronauts of Madame Blavatsky was explored by Price over thirty years ago.

What is striking here is how close and how specific Lovecraft's appropriations of Bailey's "new revelations" are, how detailed they are. Lovecraft was thrilled by Blavatsky's Dzyan pseudo-history, and was almost certainly equally thrilled to find a fresh wellspring of Theosophical hoodoo to exploit- his livelihood depended on it.

Lovecraft was not a creative person as the term is commonly understood- he was a master synthesist of other people's material (Dunsany, Poe, etc). And that would provide a very clear motive for keeping his discovery of books such as Initiation, Human and Solar secret from his circle of fellow pulp fictioneers.

Note: This is a blog in progress (blogress?). Your contributions are most welcome.   

POSTSCRIPT:  Like this- Bruce Rux notes that the god-channeling Peaslee character in Lovecraft's 1936 story 'Shadow Out of Time' is remarkably like Alice Bailey, and his "Great Race" bear a striking resemblance to Bailey's "Great Ones", who also sought hosts for their consciousness.

Bailey, Initiation, Human and Solar: The fourfold lower man, was coordinated and stimulated, and became a fit receptacle for the coming in of the self- conscious entities, those spiritual triads.

 Lovecraft: Now and then certain captives were permitted to meet other captive minds seized from the future - to exchange thoughts with consciousnesses living a hundred or a thousand or a million years before or after their own ages. 

Note also the Bailey/Peaslee surnames, one meaning "berry wood", the other meaning "bent grass wood" (Peaslee is a variant of Beasley, tantalizingly close to "Bailey").

Lovecraft seems to tip his hand to Bailey when he writes in 'Shadow': "A few of the myths had significant connections with other cloudy legends of the prehuman world, especially those Hindu tales involving stupefying gulfs of time and forming part of the lore of modern theosophists." (italics mind)

This is a direct parallelism to Chapter IV of Initiation, Human and Solar, from which we see "Sanat Kumara" and his "Avatars" coming to Earth some 18 million years ago. At time Lovecraft wrote that story- almost 50 years after Blavatsky's death- Bailey was certainly a "modern Theosophist" of some reputation.

Again, 'Shadow Out of Time' provides us with more compelling evidence that Lovecraft was indeed studying Bailey's work. With this and the Dzyan reference in the previously cited letter it would seem he wasn't exactly hiding his sources from his friends (or readers, for that matter), he just wasn't naming them specifically. Which may be splitting hairs, but pulp writing was a tough racket.

Why do you think Hubbard decided to start a religion?

To reiterate, while I can't find any evidence that Lovecraft referred specifically to Bailey, there certainly is overwhelming evidence that he was reading her and putting references to her in his work, and in at least one letter he seems to have been referring to her Dzyan work, as opposed to Blavatsky's.

I don't have any evidence (at the moment -this is a work in blogress) of him referring to Blavatsky by name either- yet no Lovecraft scholars deny he was reading her. In fact, Blavatsky's name only appears on one page in Joshi's two-volume biography of Lovecraft and it's in reference to HPL referring to her by name.

Again, there are two possibilities. First, Lovecraft may have been guarding a source for material, something authors do every single day as part of their jobs. Given the weight of the evidence here, that would be my guess. Lovecraft could very likely have encountered the Bailey material from a street vendor since she was located in the city and was publishing there at the very same time Lovecraft was living and working in New York.

But there's also the possibility that he simply may not have always distinguished the Theosophists from each other, seeing them all as the same breed of fantasy-prone hysterics. Given what we know about HPL, that can't be ruled out either. Given that Bailey presented herself as the "back to Blavatsky" Theosophist while the organization itself was moving away from its founder to push their new messiah Krishnamurti, it's actually highly probable.

UPDATE: I've moved the replies to critiques of the essay here.

©2014 Christopher Loring Knowles. All Rights Reserved. 


  1. I have been waiting this post for a long time and it was as cool as I expected. :-D

  2. Excellent post, Chris. Never heard of _The Red One_, but its going to the top of my reading list. Hope its on

    Many thoughts:

    Its been a while since I read _Supernatural Horror In Literature_, so I don't know - did HPL mention this Jack London story in that essay?

    "George Gammell Angell" - According to the InterWebs, "George" derives from a greek word means "to be a farmer; to plow, till, cultivate", and Zeus Geōrgos is the god of crops and harvest. "Gammell", as you point out, means Old One, and "Angell" is self-explanitory. The name could be interpreted as, "Ancient angel of the harvest", a sinsiter connotation given the nature of the story. Add the kingly nature of the name George and we have, what, some kind of archangel or Archon? The King of the Harvest, where we are the crop. Shades of Charles Fort.

    Having read "The Mound", which I feel is one of Lovecraft's best works (pity it is so little-known, as it was ghost-written for another) I also recognized that story as inspired by, and a biting parody of, _The Coming Race_ by Bulwer-Lytton. Lovecraft the satirist! You've opened up a whole new way of reading his works.

    1. I did look into the origins of the name, but stuck with the "Old One" since it gave me the most bang for the buck. Maybe if I expand it into a larger piece. Stuff like that tends to give some critics easy targets for tangents so I kept it to a minimum, realizing the knives will be out already. But yeah, my current thesis is this all did start as a dark satire and took on a life of its own. The Shadow Out of Time only reinforces that suspicion, since it's even more of a theive-o-thon.

  3. Interesting article!

    Shameless self promotion: I have a blog where I've written a little about the relation between HPL´s fiction and occultism.

    1. Well, I hope you have some fresh material to work with now!

  4. Hi Chris.
    When I read, "women rip animals apart with their bare hands and eat them raw" I thought of this story:
    "A woman, who identifies herself on Facebook as Christina David and an Inuk"

  5. Hey Chris,

    This is a truly fascinating article with tons of great insights. I've read some Lovecraft in my time but my knowledge of his corpus of work is pretty slim. However, I really relate with how a lot of theosophist literature is portentous, impenetrable and unintentionally hilarious. I guess it was ripe for satire. All those metaphysical hierarchies make me cringe.

    Majestic awe-inspiring ascended entities? I guess that's just more people I don't listen to. Whether it's sinister ancient dark ones or beings of bowel-shaking love and light, much of the literature makes it come across as so pretentious and so lacking in any psychological, artistic or spiritual context that rings true to me. Unlike what I'd call real 'High Weirdness.' The map is not the territory, is what I'm trying to say. All kinds of things exist out there in the limitless, I'm sure, but I don't think they cleave so easily to our rudimentary notions of metaphysical reality. But hey, who the hell even knows? Thanks for this really meaty and lucid post, bro.


    1. Reading Theosophical material- especially Bailey's- makes me feel like it's all written to tun off the brain and put the audience into a suggestible state. It's just this blizzard of buzzwords thrown at you without any sense of reality. It's something I've noticed about a lot of New Age stuff. Vallee talked about it in Messengers of Deception, with some of the Bay Area groups in the 1970s. What coherency you can find is really well buried underneath a whole host of jargon. Kind of like the crap going on inside a lot of college campuses these days, come to think of it. Makes me think that it's all being orchestrated by the same people up top.

    2. Yeah, I can dig it. I wouldn't be surprised if you were right on the money here, Chris.

  6. "Lovecraft was not a creative person as the term is commonly understood- he was a great synthesist of other people's material. And that would provide a very clear motive for keeping his discovery of books such as Initiation, Human and Solar secret from his circle of fellow pulp fictioneers." That is simply not the way the man worked, Mr. Knowles. It may be more profitable for you to examine his main source of Theosophical lore, E. Hoffman Price`s, degree of exposure to Baileyism.

  7. I'll tell you what- that's your job. I've done my job so why don't you tell us about Price and how it pertains to Bailey. Give us specifics. This is what I was talking about when I said I wanted audience participation here.

  8. Thank you for this post. Very instructive.

    To my knowledge, Lovecraft has also two other sources for his Cthulhu mythos :

    - The greek magical papyri (as can be seen from his formulae of invocation, especially to the Black Goat of the Woods with a Thousand Young)
    - Ernst Haeckel's 'Kunstformen der Natur', of whom he read and reports in his story "Reanimator", and especially the quite strange creatures called siphonophores he drew.

  9. Wow- someone else who made the connection to the Greek Magical Papyri! Amazing. I didn't include it for the reason I didn't want to get too esoteric and stray too far outside the actual texts I was preparing. But absolutely- I've always thought that about the incantations.

  10. I think much of Lovecraft's own affinity towards these brands of Victorian mystical hoopla fit nicely into his seemingly racist views of humanity and probably fed into his contempt for certain aspects of his own society at that time. With the Theosophist 'root race' theories and all that eugenics backwash that only ended up feeding the wrong heads later at the right time. All this ascended master stuff resonates with Lovecraft and his writings. But, in order to understand the connections and the forging of that intellectual chain, I think we must first try and understand the mindset of these later 19th century and early 20th century spiritualists and mystic-wannabes. I think much of this was inspired by ego-driven motivations that make less and less sense to us now living as we do in the early 21st century in an age of higher technological advances which have placed information at our fingertips in such a way as to make our most basic member of society almost appear magical in comparison to the way in which information, particularly the information being peddled as spiritual enlightenment at the turn of the 19th century by those 'in the know'. Lovecraft, being a product of those earlier times, must have been in certain awe of these pundits of spiritual celebrity who thought to bridge their pseudo-science with eastern esoteric nonsense for reasons of which can only baffle most of us today.

  11. Excellent piece of research, Chris.

    About 12 years ago I noted that Lovecraft also seemed to base his "original" "Old Ones" on pre-existing deities from the Levant and the Indian subcontinent.

    For instance, Nyarlathotep bears a strong resemblance to the name of the Egyptian fertility goddess NEBHET-HOTEP, who was also a
    "breeder" of sorts.

    Yog-Sothoth is strikingly similar to the name of the Persian (late Mesopotamian) elemental genii called YAZATAS. Try it:
    YOGSOTHOTH = YOGZATHAS, = YAZATAS, an echo of which is also found in Sanskrit YAJATA, and also in Hindu YAKSHAS and
    RAKSHASHAS (or ROG-SHOTHOTH? ROGSHOTHAS? etc.). Like Yog-Sothoth, these were elemental beings of wind, rain, etc., that could assume fleshly form under certain conditions.

    Lovecraft apparently data-mined both Theosophy and ancient religions extensively, thereby creating a feeling of historical reality for his stories.

    Again, well done! Great article.

    -Wm. Michael Mott

  12. By the way, for more direct connections between Lovecraft and Crowley, see Walter Bosley's excellent third book from an excellent series, Empire of the Wheel III. He uncovers some amazing material.

  13. Thanks for the fascinating post, Chris! It prompted me to write a response on my own site:

    I love your blog--keep up the great work!


    1. Very interesting, Eric- and I appreciate how you address how the Ancient Aliens rendering of AAT is essentially just another version of reductionist naturalism. That is something that has been taking up a lot of my time lately. Because when you actually go back and read those texts they tell a much, much different story than some 80s sci-fi story that you see on that show.

  14. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    1. Some people also need to look up the meaning of "constellations."

    2. Wow- just like Colavito, this latest would-be debunker gave me the impetus to sink in another coup de gras, this time working on the timeline. Well done!

  15. Some people apparently need to learn basic civility. Or basic backlinking.

  16. In case anyone is wondering what this is referring to some random fanboy (with your usual neckbeard social skills) wrote an alleged "rebuttal" that basically is what you'd expect: "no, it ain't neither." It's full of appalling errors of fact ( he claims that the stanza referring to the constellations doesn't say anything about stars or astrology!- again, he may change that so I took a screenshot) and I nearly gave up when he said that Bailey was just a "minor occult writer in the 1920s". There's also endless neckbeard goalpost moving and "oh, I can find some obscure reference somewhere that disproves your theorem" bullshit that built an Internet. As I said in the piece the point here is the "one-stop shopping"- Theosophy providing Lovecraft with a rich source of material to exploit and doing so well before 1933.

  17. But he did say that "The Cult of Alien Gods" was "largely derided." Oh, dear me....

  18. You'll notice I'm not bothering with an update to respond to this rebutter, since A., I think he has major reading comprehension issues (he acknowledges the constellation error in an update and then refers to the blog as "Setting Sun", B., he obviously made his mind up before he read the piece and C., I get absolutely no sense he read any of the foundational texts discussed in this piece, outside of the Lovecraft. He denies that I made the one-stop shopping argument probably because I didn't exactly word it that way, which speaks to his comprehension issues. For his benefit I'll paste this in from the response to another rebutter: "That's the key here- the combination of the Stanzas and the additional material that Lovecraft cites. And judging from the citations it sounds like he had access to both Doctrine and Treatise." He also thinks "neckbeard" is just a reference to your facial hair and not a cultural reference. It goes on and on and on. I don't bear this guy any ill will but I truly have no time for this.

    1. As to Bailey, he cites a "few works" through a "specialty presses"- he's not bothering to do the most basic research on her at all. Not a scrap. This is the blind spot with people like this person and Colavito- they live in a bubble, one that the reductionist impulse of modern academia only encourages. A simple Google search would produce tens of thousands of results on Bailey. If you can't be bothered to do basic research, don't expect any meaningful reply.

    2. You have no time to respond or rebut, but do it anyways? The only thing I noticed is that you attack the person that criticized your writing without actually responding to any of the criticism itself. The stuff you do manage to address barely scratches the surface, almost as if you lack the information or ability to respond. I'm thinking the latter because your responses are not fully thought out and are coming in waves and pieces as you think of them. Why did I come to this conclusion? Well it doesn't take 10 minutes to respond to yourself now does it? Let me reiterate the fact that you said you weren't going to waste your time but did anyways. Hilarious if you think about it.

      Btw, research ≠ googling a name

    3. Wha? Come again? I use these people for my own ends- they both helped me clarify important aspects of the story-which, if you were paying attention at all- was a work in progress. Their critiques were merely fly-off-the-handle emotional rants filled with embarrassing errors. I really don't understand the rest of your post here and I don't care to.

    4. By the way- another one with reading comprehension issues- putting comments in is different than adding an update to my site (ie "meaningful reply".) Do you understand that? He doesn't. This is what happens to your brain when you live in the world of downvote herds.

    5. Spelling and grammar issues aside, your first response manages to not address anything I pointed out. I can barely understand the first part of your rant. The second part leads me to believe that either you didn't fully read the critique or that you have no proper response to it and therefore are avoiding it all costs (i.e. deleting the comments).

      Let me just point out to you that you said "I truly have no time for this" as if to say your time is so valuable. Ok, but you've responded once again right after that post and to several people all over the comment section. You act as if writing an update is so hard. I don't know if you're aware of this, but you're on blogspot; hardly difficult by any means. I would also like to point out that it is here, in your second response to me, that you qualified "meaningful." Hopefully you understand that "meaningful" just means having meaning. That doesn't automatically define a "meaningful reply" as an update.

      I'd say at least half of both responses to me don't make sense. Maybe to you, but not to myself. For example, what are "downvote herds" and how does that affect reading comprehension?

      I noticed that you have this thing about using hyphens improperly and adding random spaces everywhere. What gives?

    6. Oh, I do it just to antagonize you. I fully understand the critique. He doesn't fully understand my thesis. I don't think he's capable of doing so. I've discussed it with several esoterically-minded Lovecraft fans who got it immediately and that's who I wrote this for. I only posted links for this article on my closed Facebook group and my private Facebook timeline (contrary to what that character claimed in one of his tantrums), but obviously it struck a nerve. Toodles.


  19. Chris, thanks for this insightful thread. I remember finding a few years ago some guy saying something about how all the "Ancient Astronauts" stuff was started by Lovecraft. I didn't bookmark the reference, because the statement was so obviously stupid that I had no interest in reading any further of that person's opinions. I read "The Call of Cthulhu" back in 1993, simply because the wargaming/boardgaming crowd I was hanging with wanted to play the "Cthulhu" RPG. Even on that first reading, I noted the references to Theosophy that Lovecraft placed. As I read more Lovecraft, I realized how many Mythos references had been sprinkled into things like Trek and Marvel Comics, and it lead me back to many of the paranormal things I'd always been interested in. It seems that Lovecraft had things in common with people like Stan Lee, Roddenberry, and George Lucas, I.E. a talent for distilling great stories from other's ideas. That isn't meant as a knock against any of those guys. I was already aware of Lord Dunsany and Jack London being influences for Lovecraft, and I'm going to look further at the sources you've shown here. In a word, I'm fascinated to see these things drawing together.

    Don't let the narrow-minded get you down.

  20. Oh, I don't. And thanks for your support. I've been on the Internet since 2400bps was state of the art so this kind of thing is old news to me. It helps me actually- I used to study martial arts so I'm familiar with the concept of using your opponent's attack to your own advantage- that their energy can become your energy. Especially when they get emotional and get sloppy, as happened in both of the individuals who chose to attack me here. They handed me their weapons, essentially. I was juggling so much material there were certain things I was bound to overlook, which is why I solicited help. I studied Theosophy in depth before and had Krishnamurti in the back of my mind, but the crucial link here was how the Theosophists were pushing him forward and pushing Blavatsky back. I was so focused on Bailey I didn't put that together. Thanks to the Reddit thing I did. As with Colavito I am very grateful for that. Sincerely.

    1. That's cool! I know you welcome well-thought criticism, it's great that you have the attitude you do. I myself have grown very weary of knee-jerk responses from people, but it's *always* good to look out from our bubbles, always good to look from new directions. The biggest value I get from The Secret Sun is the new viewpoints I get on things I thought I was familiar with. I'm so glad you're back!

  21. I read this a few days ago as well as Colavito and comments here and there respectively. I noticed that the 'Updates' section is exceedingly different from before. It's no problem to read them again but was wondering if any updates were done to the main body? Thanks.

    I think you have something here, even those unfamiliar with Lovecraft would appreciate. These days, I enjoy skepticism more I used to but feel that Colavito didn't even attempt at debunking the main textual and conceptual similarities you highlighted. Only a few sentences were challenged and then the comments at the site went on a rampage trying to sling mud anyway possible.

  22. Terry, when I set out to do this I left a note at the bottom that it was a work in progress. As I said before I only linked to this on two places- my private Facebook timeline and my closed Facebook group. No Twitter hashtags or anything like that. I did not intend for this become a major issue, never mind a giant pigpile. As I mentioned on Colavito's comments section I was a bit shocked by the thousands of hits it was getting, especially since this blog has been inactive for a year. My intention was to have a small group of esotericists weigh in and help me hone the thesis. So there have been a number of tweaks and changes throughout as I've read more material, thought things over, gotten feedback via emails etc. As for Colavito I am very disappointed with his response but if you've been following what's been going on in the Skeptic community you probably aren't surprised either. And I don't think any of the people attacking me ever heard of Alice Bailey, never mind sat down and tried to slog through her books. Colavito did however help me tremendously so I am grateful for that. And thank you very much for your kind words.

  23. I always liked your work. Thanks for the response.

    I only saw your post myself when I opened up my old FeedDemon program and looked through the feeds. I saw 2 new updates and clicked through!

    Like i said, I appreciate skepticism .... but I like it served with a full serving of minutia if it is to be attempted at all.

  24. "
    I hate to break the news, kiddies, but Lovecraft may indeed have been disingenuous here, talking about material to friends once he had already raided it for ideas. He may have done what writers do and kept a source secret from his friends. There are writers who won't tell their friends what their books are about until they're published... Remember that his correspondent here- Clark Ashton Smith- was a competitor. A friend but also a rival. We're talking struggling freelance writers, working for a penny a word."

    Yes, but was Lovecraft competitive? He didn't just recommend markets to writer friends (markets that were also for his own work) but gave his friends ideas to develop. He often talked about his work in progress, giving away their basic ideas before the tales were published and therefore risking (at least theoretically) that someone else would pinch them and get there first.

    1. It all depends on how proprietary he felt, I suppose. It's funny, I'm sure you've seen that the same people who who run in their hairshirts screaming that Lovecraft was a racist, classist, sexist, ableist, cis-genderist, speciesist, and all the rest of it will go the mat insisting that he was St Francis of Assisi when it came to giving away story ideas. How much sense does that make? Especially since most of them are hiding their own short story ideas from their friends as they strafe my little obscure blog.

    2. I might add, again, that we have evidence in the form of Lovecraft's letters and actions that directly counter that notion. He was very open to his friends and correspondents, offering help and advice, revising and even ghostwriting works for very little profit and often insisting they keep the credit. If you have any actual proof of Lovecraft ever keeping a "good idea" to himself, please post it.

    3. What part of "it all depends on how proprietary he felt, I suppose" did you not understand? Here also is this again: "Wait- he doesn't know where Price got hold of it? Come on, Howard. At the time there were only two sources for Dzyan texts; Blavatsky's Secret Doctrine or Bailey's Treatise on Cosmic Fire. Did Price tattoo the material on his chest? And everything Price gave Lovecraft would have "Theosophy" stamped all over it (well, except for Bailey's, that is-- her's would be from 'Lucifer Publishing'-- talk about ready-made for Weird Tales). This exactly proves my point- Lovecraft is hiding the source for this material from Smith! "

      And another thing you don't seem to understand is that I am talking about essential similarities whereas you can't get past superficial similarities. That's a cultural difference here that is unbridgeable. That's sad and unfortunate but also pretty trivial given what's going on in the world these days.

      By the way, I tried posting a response on that Reddit board but I was downvoted into oblivion. I even created a Reddit account for the occasion, even though I was busy with other things. So fuck it, I deleted the responses. Life's too short for the Neckbeard Gong Show.

      And I'm afraid that's all the time we have to discuss this together. Everything I have to say is in the piece anyway. Re-read it if you have any further questions.

  25. Okay, there's a couple things going on here, but I'll just hit the highlights.

    > What part of "it all depends on how proprietary he felt, I suppose" did you not understand?

    The part where you still have not given a shred of evidence that Lovecraft ever heard of or read Bailey. Given the lack of any mention of Bailey in Lovecraft's letters or essays or fiction, you would have to present, at the very least, a strong case that there was some material unique to Bailey's books which appears in Lovecraft's fiction. It is my assertion that you have not done so, and that the similarities you claim are at worst superficial, and at best are references to or derivative of Theosophy, but can be explained as coming from books we know Lovecraft read, like W. Elliott-Scott's "The Story of Atlantis and the Lost Lemuria" which Lovecraft read in 1926 shortly before writing "The Call of Cthulhu." That's the foundation of your claims, and it's the standard that in my opinion you have not yet met.

    > Did Price tattoo the material on his chest?

    I believe you're continuing to misunderstand or misinterpret the 1933 letter from Lovecraft to E. Hoffmann Price. Price mentioned these things to Lovecraft, and HPL is excited and replying asking for more details. In the full passage (which I quoted in my rebuttal), this seems quite clear.

    > And another thing you don't seem to understand is that I am talking about essential similarities whereas you can't get past superficial similarities.

    This is, I think, one of our fundamental areas of disagreement. The similarities you draw between "The Call of Cthulhu" and Bailey's material do not, to me, seem to me to be completely superficial. I have not yet seen you demonstrate a unique element in Bailey's work that shows up in Lovecraft, or a fundamental philosophical principle or myth which is strongly replicated in Lovecraft.

    > By the way, I tried posting a response on that Reddit board but I was downvoted into oblivion. I even created a Reddit account for the occasion, even though I was busy with other things. So fuck it, I deleted the responses. Life's too short for the Neckbeard Gong Show.

    Well, that does sometimes happen when you find it necessary to insult people instead of addressing your main points. If you feel like addressing this in a more neutral forum where you won't be downvoted, I can set up a thread. As it is, I'm not terribly inclined to continue it on your blog, where you feel the need to continue insulting me after you've already deleted my link to the rebuttal.

  26. I believe I told you to re-read the piece, because there have been several updates. So do so. Scott-Elliott and Bailey are not identical and if you read them you'd know that. By the way, I haven't seen Lovecraft mention Blavatsky's name yet no one seems to argue that he read her. And why do you care in the first place? This isn't io9. This is an obscure little blog that's been inactive for a year. The only places I linked this piece were on my private FB timeline and my closed FB group. I have no control of who links to it after that. I was only interested in discussing this with occult-minded Lovecraftians, but I must say that people like yourself and Colavito have been a great help with this project, so cheers for that. Having been on the internet since 2400 bps was the state of the art I know enough to interpret all the sputtering outrage out there as unconscious concurrence. Obviously it hit a nerve. But I have much more important things to do now, so as I said before- we're done here. Have a nice weekend.

    1. Readers following via email take note: further update proving motive and opportunity based on irrefutable facts.

    2. And don't worry- I'm including my new Reddit buddies in the invitation.

  27. I've read this piece a few times now and the only problem I have with it is your take on Blavatsky. I actually like her. Same with Dion Fortune, FWIW. With writers like them, be they women or men, the context of their time and space should be considered when reading their work... like Crowley. Don't much care for the man, but much of his work is stellar. That's how I feel about Blavatsky. Good work, overall.

    Again, all that being said, at this point in my own life, it might be wise for me to re-read her work, along side that of Bailey's. I seem to keep discovering renewed perspectives on many concepts, lately.

    Imagine that. Eh? Good work, Chris.

  28. It's funny- I just re-read Colin Wilson's chapter on Blavatsky and I agree she was a wonderfully colorful character- a real original. It's her writing I take issue with. And I don't think I'm alone in this by any stretch. But we're all the poorer that we don't produce eccentrics of her caliber anymore.

  29. "Yes, but was Lovecraft competitive? He didn't just recommend markets to writer friends (markets that were also for his own work) but gave his friends ideas to develop. He often talked about his work in progress, giving away their basic ideas before the tales were published and therefore risking (at least theoretically) that someone else would pinch them and get there first."

    "It all depends on how proprietary he felt, I suppose. It's funny, I'm sure you've seen that the same people who who run in their hairshirts screaming that Lovecraft was a racist, classist, sexist, ableist, cis-genderist, speciesist, and all the rest of it will go the mat insisting that he was St Francis of Assisi when it came to giving away story ideas. How much sense does that make? Especially since most of them are hiding their own short story ideas from their friends as they strafe my little obscure blog."

    To be honest, I don't see how most of that is relevant. In what way was Lovecraft's behaviour dictated by how other writers may behave? Frank Belknap Long once told me that of all the writers he knew, Lovecraft was by far the most generous in handing over ideas and inspiration to his writer friends.

  30. Maybe he was, but maybe not during a time when his main source of income- his wife- was bankrupt, his main source of publishing- Weird Tales- was teetering, and when his life in general was on a downhill slope to hell. Writers tend to be a bit more protective when they are looking at total destitution. I can't have a discussion with anyone who thinks otherwise.

    1. But that was exactly the period when Frank knew him best - better than either of us can.

  31. Terrific. But guess what. He was still a human being. And human beings do thing like look after their own bottom lines, most especially when those bottom lines were as deep in the red as his were at the time. I'm not interested in any of the frankly bizarre hero-worship I'm seeing out there, that none of this can be true because of Lovecraft's Christ-like penchant for giving away the candy store before it even opened. It speaks to a need for a surrogate religion, not anything remotely approaching scholarship. On top of everything else, we have Lovecraft and Bailey in the same city, we have Lovecraft walking the same street as where Bailey set up shop (and from HPLs journals it sounds like he was downtown). We have well-documented links between occultists and pulp writers throughout the 19th and 20th Centuries as well. And there are a number of other unanswered questions that I'll be tearing into soon and addressing in an update.

  32. This is quite a charming essay, Christopher. I find the idea of HPL satirizing Bailey (or at least starting out with that intent when writing "Call") persuasive. Not least because he wrote at least one deliberate parody of a contemporary work (Eliot's "Waste Land") that he despised.

  33. I love seeing the connections here, and I guess I don't understand the "controversy". HPL name-drops Theosophy in the 2nd paragraph of "The Call of Cthulhu". I just think it's really cool that Chris found these deeper connections. It helps explain why the Mythos feels so *powerful*, despite HPL's often use of purple prose. The deeper, mythic, Mysterious connections are awesome. No wonder I love Star Trek so much - it's tied to almost all the most ancient of stories, from Horus to Theosophy. Don't you all think that the really great stories *have* to connect to our deepest myths?

  34. I was inspired to read 'The Red One' from this

    "So reasoning, he felt his soul go forth in kinship with that august company, that multitude whose gaze was forever upon the arras of infinity" - It would seem London himself was no stranger to the esoteric if we consider that an arras is a veil concealing a hidden alcove. So are the builders of the red one as beguiled by a false reality as us?

  35. Hmmm...

  36. "and through means not entirely made explicit began to evolve primitive apemen into modern homo sapiens."

    In other words, these fucking degenerates, oops, excuse me, superior beings, were having sex with apes and somehow produced a hybrid by accident. some AA theories admit this. frankly I think pig chimp hybrid theory of human origins is more likely. And I'm a creationist. (Adam made from mud that had pig and chimp epithelials in it so God could remind us later of our unclassy origins when we get out of line?)

  37. Maybe if you could rewrite this and take out the name-calling, tantrums, your superiority complex and your general ADHD kiddie attitude out of the prose this piece of... writing could actually be shared in good conscience.

  38. Your mode of telling the whole thing in this post is really nice, every one
    can simply understand it, Thanks a lot.

  39. Thanks for this article. You make a clear case for direct inspiration from Bailey - your suggestion of K(u)thu(mi)+(Djwa)l(k)hu as the source of the name really stands out.

    I stumbled on this article by scholar Paul Johnson which makes a strong case that Kuthumi and Djwal Khul are semi-fictionalized renditions of Blavatsky's interactions with Thakur Singh (president of a Sikh/Indian revolutionary group) and Dayal Singh (his cohort).

  40. Howdy just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few of the pictures aren't loading properly.
    I'm not sure why but I think its a linking issue.

    I've tried it in two different browsers and both show the same

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